Centos搭建Ftp

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这里使用的是 vsftpd,按照如下的步骤开始实施:

1.查看有没有安装vsftpd:
    rpm -qa | grep vsftpd

2.yum安装vsftpd:
    yum install vsftpd

3.rpm安装vsftpd:
    可以从下面两个地方获得最新的vsftpd的RPM包https://www.redhat.com/或者http://www.rpmfind.net/

安装命令:

rpm -Uvh vsftpd-1.1.3-8.i386.rpm

4.设置每次开机时自动运行及手工启动它:
chkconfig vsftpd on
service vsftpd start
netstat -tl    可以查看ftp端口是否在侦听了!

5.为vsftpd添加ftp账号
用useradd建立的用户,如果后面不加参数,建立的用户为普通用户,有系统登陆权限,所以要在useradd命令后面加上参数,为虚拟主机添加不可以登录系统的ftp专用账号,命令如下:
# useradd –s /sbin/nologin –d /var/www  -g ftp ftpadmin

如果显示如下信息:
Creating mailbox file: File exists
useradd: warning: the home directory already exists.
Not copying any file from skel directory into it.

表示用户家目录已经存在(/var/www),不可再新建此目录,并非添加用户失败,接下来给用户设置密码,否则此账号不能使用,命令如下:
# passwd ftpadmin

这样就为linux系统添加用户ftpadmin,用户目录指定为/var/www,属于ftp用户组,且此用户不能登陆系统。

注:
-s /sbin/nologin是让其不能登陆系统
-d 是指定用户目录为/var/www
-g ftp 把用户加入到ftp组中

修改/var/www目录属性:
chmod -R 777 /var/www 递归地给此目录下所有文件和子目录的读、写、执行权限
$ chgrp -R ftp  /var/www 递归地把此目录及该目录下所有文件和子目录的组属性设置成ftp组

 

创建用户另一则:

#useradd -d /home/chaosdir -s /sbin/nologin chaos  //增加新用户不让在本机登陆

#chown -R chaos /home/chaosdir //更改新增目录的权限,只允许chaos访问此目录;

# passwd chaos //为用户设置密码;
Changing password for user chaos.
New UNIX password:
BAD PASSWORD: it does not contain enough DIFFERENT characters
Retype new UNIX password:
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.


6.配置etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf文件:

nano -w /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf
注:用nano编辑配置文件要加参数“-w”,用于取消自动换行,否则有可能会出错。

配置文件范例:

# Example config file /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf
#
# The default compiled in settings are fairly paranoid. This sample file
# loosens things up a bit, to make the ftp daemon more usable.
# Please see vsftpd.conf.5 for all compiled in defaults.
#
# READ THIS: This example file is NOT an exhaustive list of vsftpd options.
# Please read the vsftpd.conf.5 manual page to get a full idea of vsftpd’s
# capabilities.
#
# Allow anonymous FTP? (Beware – allowed by default if you comment this out).
anonymous_enable=NO
#
# Uncomment this to allow local users to log in.
local_enable=YES
#
# Uncomment this to enable any form of FTP write command.
write_enable=YES
#
# Default umask for local users is 077. You may wish to change this to 022,
# if your users expect that (022 is used by most other ftpd’s)
local_umask=022
#
# Uncomment this to allow the anonymous FTP user to upload files. This only
# has an effect if the above global write enable is activated. Also, you will
# obviously need to create a directory writable by the FTP user.
#anon_upload_enable=YES
#
# Uncomment this if you want the anonymous FTP user to be able to create
# new directories.
#anon_mkdir_write_enable=YES
#
# Activate directory messages – messages given to remote users when they
# go into a certain directory.
dirmessage_enable=YES
#
# Activate logging of uploads/downloads.
xferlog_enable=YES
#
# Make sure PORT transfer connections originate from port 20 (ftp-data).
connect_from_port_20=YES
#
# If you want, you can arrange for uploaded anonymous files to be owned by
# a different user. Note! Using “root” for uploaded files is not
# recommended!
#chown_uploads=YES
#chown_username=whoever
#
# You may override where the log file goes if you like. The default is shown
# below.
#xferlog_file=/var/log/vsftpd.log
#
# If you want, you can have your log file in standard ftpd xferlog format
xferlog_std_format=YES
#
# You may change the default value for timing out an idle session.
#idle_session_timeout=600
#
# You may change the default value for timing out a data connection.
#data_connection_timeout=120
#
# It is recommended that you define on your system a unique user which the
# ftp server can use as a totally isolated and unprivileged user.
#nopriv_user=ftpsecure
#
# Enable this and the server will recognise asynchronous ABOR requests. Not
# recommended for security (the code is non-trivial). Not enabling it,
# however, may confuse older FTP clients.
#async_abor_enable=YES
#
# By default the server will pretend to allow ASCII mode but in fact ignore
# the request. Turn on the below options to have the server actually do ASCII
# mangling on files when in ASCII mode.
# Beware that on some FTP servers, ASCII support allows a denial of service
# attack (DoS) via the command “SIZE /big/file” in ASCII mode. vsftpd
# predicted this attack and has always been safe, reporting the size of the
# raw file.
# ASCII mangling is a horrible feature of the protocol.
#ascii_upload_enable=YES
#ascii_download_enable=YES
#
# You may fully customise the login banner string:
#ftpd_banner=Welcome to blah FTP service.
#
# You may specify a file of disallowed anonymous e-mail addresses. Apparently
# useful for combatting certain DoS attacks.
#deny_email_enable=YES
# (default follows)
#banned_email_file=/etc/vsftpd/banned_emails
#
# You may specify an explicit list of local users to chroot() to their home
# directory. If chroot_local_user is YES, then this list becomes a list of
# users to NOT chroot().
#chroot_list_enable=YES
# (default follows)
#chroot_list_file=/etc/vsftpd/chroot_list
#
# You may activate the “-R” option to the builtin ls. This is disabled by
# default to avoid remote users being able to cause excessive I/O on large
# sites. However, some broken FTP clients such as “ncftp” and “mirror” assume
# the presence of the “-R” option, so there is a strong case for enabling it.
#ls_recurse_enable=YES
#
# When “listen” directive is enabled, vsftpd runs in standalone mode and
# listens on IPv4 sockets. This directive cannot be used in conjunction
# with the listen_ipv6 directive.
listen=YES
#
# This directive enables listening on IPv6 sockets. To listen on IPv4 and IPv6
# sockets, you must run two copies of vsftpd whith two configuration files.
# Make sure, that one of the listen options is commented !!
#listen_ipv6=YES

pam_service_name=vsftpd
chroot_local_user=YES
userlist_enable=YES
tcp_wrappers=YES

注:此配置文件仅在默认配置文件基础上修改为如下两项:

anonymous_enable=NO    #禁止匿名登录

chroot_local_user=YES     #把系统内所有的FTP用户都限制在家目录中

7.查看谁登陆了FTP,并杀死它的进程
ps –xf |grep ftp
kill 进程号

8.使vsftp下root登录:
1)编辑两个FTP配置文件:/etc/vsftpd.ftpusers和/etc/vsftpd.user_list,将root那一行删掉或#注释掉;

2)重启vsftpd服务:

service vsftpd restart

碰到的问题:

 1.无法启动vsftpd

    首先要查看那个占用了 21 端口,使用命令:netstat -nlap | grep “:21”

    修改端口:

    #ls_recurse_enable=YES
listen=YES
listen_port=23     #这个是追加上去的
#listen_ipv6=YES

2.vsftpd启动失败

但是VSFTPD在服务器重启以后的一段时间后就不好用,提示Starting vsftpd for vsftpd: [ FAILED ]
重装也不好用很是奇怪。
偶然从网上搜索到/etc/logrotate.d/vsftpd.log的文件配置,和我自己的对比一下,我的多了missingok一项,把它注释掉启动,搞定!
目前的/etc/logrotate.d/vsftpd.log文件如下:

/var/log/vsftpd.log {
# ftpd doesn’t handle SIGHUP properly
nocompress
# missingok
}

/var/log/xferlog {
# ftpd doesn’t handle SIGHUP properly
nocompress
# missingok
}

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